Increased oxidized-LDL levels and arylesterase activity/HDL ratio in ESRD patients treated with hemodialysis

Abdolkarim Mahrooz, Mehryar Zargari, Omid Sedighi, Hamed Shaygani, Ghorban Gohari


Purpose: Investigations, in which oxidized-low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), serum paraoxonase (PON1) and homocysteine (Hcy) are considered together as important agents involved in the development of oxidative and atherogenic events in non-diabetic hemodialysis (HD) population, are limited. This case-control study was designed to evaluate these parameters in the patients and control subjects and to determine the correlations among the factors.

Methods: Forty-nine age- and sex- matched subjects, including 28 non-diabetic HD patients (paired pre-and post-dialysis samples) and 21 control subjects, were enrolled. Ox-LDL and Hcy levels were measured with ELISA and EIA methods, respectively. Arylesterase activity of PON1 was measured by spectrophotometric assay.

Results: Compared with the control group, ox-LDL levels were significantly increased both before (p=0.001) and after HD (p=0.036). Arylesterase activity-to-HDL ratio in HD patients was significantly higher than control subjects (p=0.003). Homocysteine levels in the ESRD patients were higher than control subjects both in pre-dialysis and post-dialysis. There was a significant positive correlation (r= 0.25, p= 0.026) between ox-LDL and homocysteine in samples obtained before HD. Logistic regression analysis revealed ox-LDL levels (OR=3.02, p < 0.001) and arylesterase activity/HDL ratio (OR=2.43, p=0.01) to be associated with the increased risk of ESRD.

Conclusions: Ox-LDL levels and arylesterase activity/HDL ratio indicated the strongest association with ESRD risk. These factors, especially ox-LDL as an indicator of oxidative stress, may be biomarkers in evaluating the status of non-diabetic ESRD patients. Because of the pathogenic relationship between ox-LDL and homocysteine as nontraditional risk factors of atherosclerosis, therapeutic strategies adopted to reduce them may be useful in decrease of high prevalence of cardiovascular mortality in dialysis patients. In addition, measurement of PON1 activity to HDL ratio is possibly a more valuable biomarker than arylesterase activity alone in non-diabetic ESRD.

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